Микробиом кишечника может играть роль в нарушениях миелинизации , включая рассеянный склероз


Уважаемый форумчанин
Gut Microbiome May Play Role in Myelination Disorders Including Multiple Sclerosis - MedicalResearch.com

Professor JF Cryan PhD
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience
APC Microbiome Institute
University College Cork
Cork, Ireland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Prof. Cryan: Over the past decade there has been an ever growing body of preclinical studies that highlight an essential role of the gut microbiota in many aspects of physiology including and perhps most surprtisingly the brain . Germ-free animals are one useful approach used to establish causality in gut microbiota-brain relationships. This model has been extremely useful in establishing that the microbiota is essential for appropriate stress responsibility, anxiety-like behaviours, neurogenesis, blood-brain barrier function and microglia activity. From these findings we can see that there is a clear cut role for the microbiota in CNS developmental processes.

Профессор и. Ф. Крайан кандидат
Кафедры анатомии и Нейробиологии
АПК Институт Микробиом
Университетский Колледж Корк
Корк, Ирландия

MedicalResearch.com: что такое фон для этого исследования? Каковы основные выводы?

Профессор Крайан: за последнее десятилетие наблюдается растущее тело доклинических исследований, которые подчеркивают важную роль микрофлоры кишечника во многих физиологических процессах, включая и perhps большинство surprtisingly мозга . Стерильных животных не один полезный подход, используемый для установления причинно-следственных связей в кишечнике микробиота-мозг отношения. Эта модель была чрезвычайно полезными в установлении того, что микрофлора имеет важное значение для соответствующей нагрузке ответственность, тревожность-как поведение, нейрогенез, гематоэнцефалический барьер функции и активности микроглии. Из этих находок мы видим, что существует четкий роль микробиоты в процессы развития ЦНС.

Julia ~

Ветеран форума
Gut microbiome and multiple sclerosis.
2014 Oct;14

The commensal flora that lives in the human gut is a unique ecosystem that has evolved over millennia with human beings. The importance of the microbiota in various bodily functions is gradually becoming more apparent. Besides the gut microbiome playing a role in bowel-related disorders, a role in metabolic and autoimmune disorders is becoming clearer. The gut bacteria play a role in educating the immune system and hence may be a player in the development of multiple sclerosis. We examine the different sources of information linking the gut microbiota to multiple sclerosis and examine the future avenues for utilizing the knowledge of the gut microbiome to potentially treat and prevent multiple sclerosis.
Gut microbiome and multiple sclerosis. - PubMed - NCBI

The gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis.

2015 Apr;17

The gut microbiome is made up of a wide range of (chiefly) bacterial species that colonize the small and large intestine. The human gut microbiome contains a subset of thousands of bacterial species, with up to 10(14) total bacteria. Studies examining this bacterial content have shown wide variations in which species are present between individuals. The gut microbiome has been shown to have profound effects on the development and maintenance of immune system in both animal models and in humans. A growing body of evidence has implicated the human gut microbiome in a range of disorders, including obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies present compelling evidence that the gut microbiome plays a significant role in the progression of demyelinating disease, and that modulation of the microbiome can lead to either exacerbation or amelioration of symptoms. Differences in diet, vitamin D insufficiency, smoking, and alcohol use have all been implicated as risk factors in MS, and all have the ability to affect the composition of the gut microbiota. Preliminary clinical trials aimed at modulating the gut microbiota in MS patients are underway and may prove to be a promising and lower-risk treatment option in the future.
The gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis. - PubMed - NCBI

Alterations of the human gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis
Accepted: 20 May 2016
Published online: 28 June 2016

The gut microbiome plays an important role in immune function and has been implicated in several autoimmune disorders. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the gut microbiome in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS, n=60) and healthy controls (n=43). Microbiome alterations in MS include increases in Methanobrevibacter and Akkermansia and decreases in Butyricimonas, and correlate with variations in the expression of genes involved in dendritic cell maturation, interferon signalling and NF-kB signalling pathways in circulating T cells and monocytes. Patients on disease-modifying treatment show increased abundances of Prevotella and Sutterella, and decreased Sarcina, compared with untreated patients. MS patients of a second cohort show elevated breath methane compared with controls, consistent with our observation of increased gut Methanobrevibacter in MS in the first cohort. Further study is required to assess whether the observed alterations in the gut microbiome play a role in, or are a consequence of, MS pathogenesis.
Alterations of the human gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis : Nature Communications

Multiple sclerosis patients have a distinct gut microbiota compared to healthy controls
Accepted: 03 June 2016
Published online: 27 June 2016

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease, the etiology of which involves both genetic and environmental factors. The exact nature of the environmental factors responsible for predisposition to MS remains elusive; however, it’s hypothesized that gastrointestinal microbiota might play an important role in pathogenesis of MS. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether gut microbiota are altered in MS by comparing the fecal microbiota in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) (n = 31) patients to that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 36). Phylotype profiles of the gut microbial populations were generated using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Detailed fecal microbiome analyses revealed that MS patients had distinct microbial community profile compared to healthy controls. We observed an increased abundance of Psuedomonas, Mycoplana, Haemophilus, Blautia, and Dorea genera in MS patients, whereas control group showed increased abundance of Parabacteroides, Adlercreutzia and Prevotella genera. Thus our study is consistent with the hypothesis that MS patients have gut microbial dysbiosis and further study is needed to better understand their role in the etiopathogenesis of MS.
Multiple sclerosis patients have a distinct gut microbiota compared to healthy controls : Scientific Reports

Link between gut bacteria, MS discovered
MS patients show lower levels of good bacteria

June 27, 2016

Researchers are now saying bad gut bacteria -- or an insufficient amount of good bacteria -- may have a direct link to multiple sclerosis as well.
"Every human carries trillions of bacteria in their gut (gut microbiome) and recent advances in research indicate that these tiny passengers play an important role in our overall health maintenance," says Ashutosh Mangalam, PhD, assistant professor of pathology at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.
Since the bacteria are associated with contributing to good health, Mangalam and his colleagues wondered whether those with a chronic autoimmune disorder, such as multiple sclerosis, would then have a gut microbiome that is different than the microbiome found in healthy individuals.
In a study published online in the journal Scientific Reports, Mangalam and his team say that MS patients do, in fact, have a distinct microbiome from their healthy peers.
"Although preliminary, our data suggest that patients with MS have reduced levels of good bacteria responsible for overall benefits obtained from consuming healthy foods, such as soybean and flaxseeds," says Mangalam, who is senior author on the study.
Mangalam and his team from Mayo Clinic -- where all of the work was completed before Mangalam joined the UI in 2015 -- conducted microbiome analysis on fecal samples collected from MS patients as well as healthy control subjects.
"We identified certain bacteria which are increased or decreased in the gut of patients with MS compared to healthy controls," he says.
Mangalam says further research is needed to confirm the team's findings in a larger patient population.

Changes uncovered in the gut bacteria of patients with multiple sclerosis

July 12, 2016

A connection between the bacteria living in the gut and immunological disorders such as multiple sclerosis have long been suspected, but for the first time, researchers have detected clear evidence of changes that tie the two together. Investigators have found that people with multiple sclerosis have different patterns of gut microorganisms than those of their healthy counterparts. In addition, patients receiving treatment for MS have different patterns than untreated patients.
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